百日咳的數據

百日咳又名「雞咳」,是由百日咳博德特氏菌引致的高度傳染性疾病,亦被列為令嬰兒死亡的全球10大疾病之一1

在本港,百日咳個案近年有急促上升趨勢,於2018年,受感染個案數字就創下21年新高,而6個月以下嬰兒感染個案更接近4成,情況令人關注2-3


為什麼初生最高危?

初生嬰兒於出世至六個月,尚未完成接種含百日咳成份的基礎疫苗,令他們較容易感染百日咳,嬰兒於首兩個月的真空期更為高危4-6

兒童基礎疫苗時間表6


百日咳的症狀

在初期等病徵是打噴嚏、流鼻水、輕微發燒及咳嗽等。咳嗽會愈漸加劇,嚴重妨礙患者飲食及令呼吸受阻7

2個月以下的初生嬰兒受感染 可引致嚴重後果7


百日咳的傳播途徑

百日咳可透過直接接觸患者咳嗽或打噴嚏的飛沫傳播。如未有及時開始治療,患者感染後首兩星期仍可傳染給他人8

百日咳具有高度傳染性

百日咳桿菌經由咳嗽及打噴嚏傳播8

於一個沒有受免疫保護的社區,1名感染者可傳染給多達17人9

初生嬰兒感染百日咳的個案中大多數都是由家庭成員傳染9


百日咳的預防方法

保持良好的個人及環境衞生,經常保持雙手清潔11

全力預防百日咳 接種疫苗是有效的方法11

1
懷孕期接種疫苗 保護初生嬰兒真空期受感染12

懷孕期接種百日咳疫苗
從一開始保護孩子

孕婦百日咳混合疫苗

懷孕期接種,讓疫苗在孕婦體內產生的抗體,能透過胎盤傳送給胎兒,讓嬰兒一出世便得到保護4,12

香港衞生防護中心建議,婦女在每次懷孕期間,應接種一劑百日咳混合疫苗,預防初生嬰兒於真空期受感染12

孕婦可在妊娠第二或三期期間的任何時間進行接種,並以在懷孕35周前接種為佳12

查看孕婦疫苗注射時間表
詳情請向醫生查詢
白喉(減量)、破傷風及無細胞型百日咳(減量)混合疫苗
2
兒童疫苗 延續防疫保護

兒童基礎疫苗14


3
青少年及成人接種加強劑15
4
照顧者或醫護人員接種疫苗15
參考資料: 1. Grant C. Bordetella infection. In: Oxford Textbook of Medicine, Warrell DA et al (Eds). 5th edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. Section 7.6.14. 2. Centre of Health Protection. Number of notifiable infectious diseases by month. Available at here (Last accessed Jul 2019) 3. Centre of Health Protection. Communicable Diseases Watch. Vol 16 Issue N3. 2019. 4. ACOG Committee Opinion. Update on immunization and pregnancy: tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis vaccination. Number 718, September 2017. Available at here. (Last accessed Jul 2019) 5. CDC. Pregnancy and Whooping Cough. Vaccine effectiveness. Available at here. (Last accessed Jul 2019) 6. Family Health Service. Hong Kong Childhood Immunisation Programme. Available at here (Last accessed Jul 2019) 7. Hong JY. Korean J Pediatr ;2010;53:629–633 8. CDC. Pertussis. Cause and transmission. Available at here (Last accessed Jul 2019) 9. Schellekens J, von König CH, Gardner P. Pertussis sources of infection and routes of transmission in the vaccination era. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005 May;24(5 Suppl):S19-24 10. Wiley KE, et al. Sources of pertussis infection in young infants: A review of key evidence informing targeting of the cocoon strategy. Vaccine 2013;31:618–625 11. Centre of Health Protection. Health topics: Pertussis. Available at here (Last accessed Jul 2019) 12. HKSAR Centre of Health Protection. Scientific Committee on Vaccine Preventable Diseases Consensus Recommendations on Pertussis Vaccination for Pregnant Women in Hong Kong. Feb 2019. 13. Hong Kong Reference Framework for Preventive Care for Children in Primary Care Setting. Module on Immunisation. Revised Edition 2017. 14. Centre of Health Protection. Health topics. Pertussis. Available at here (Last accessed Jul 2019) 15. CDC. Pertussis (Whooping Cough). Prevention. Available at here (Last accessed Jul 2019