輪狀病毒的數據

初生6-24個月是感染高峰期,而嚴重個案更多出現於4至23個月的嬰幼兒1,2

輪狀病毒令BB不停屙嘔,是引致嬰幼兒出現嚴重腸胃炎的主要原因之一1


輪狀病毒的症狀

症狀一般於受感染後的48小時內開始出現5

症狀包括:

嚴重病徵可持續9天7


輪狀病毒的傳播途徑

輪狀病毒屬高度傳染性,主要透過口糞途徑傳播,亦可藉接觸雙手或物件傳染10

高傳染性

容易人傳人,尤其在幼兒院等環境8

病毒可在以下環境生存11

於雙手存活最少4小時

於物件表面可存活10天

幼兒如感染輪狀病毒,可傳染給其他人,而他們的照顧者更是高危一族12。 研究指出,於照顧受感染兒童的成年人當中,有多達3分1的成人亦受到感染12 。可見,輪狀病毒傳染性極高,請及早保護自己和您的兒童,免受輪狀病毒感染。


輪狀病毒的預防方法

經常保持雙手清潔及保持環境衛生,減低感染機會8

接種疫苗,是預防輪狀病毒的有效方法8

世界衞生組織(WHO)建議:所有國家應納入輪狀病毒口服疫苗於國民免疫接種計劃以保護小至出生僅6個星期的幼兒免受輪狀病毒感染13

輪狀病毒口服疫苗

疫苗最早可於10週完成,於感染高峰期前為幼兒提供保護13

由於服用期有限 (6個月前) ,請於嬰兒初出世後盡早向醫生查詢,以便錯過接種時機1, 14

*疫苗的副作用,一般可能有輕微腹瀉、發燒及煩躁等1

如有任何疑問,請向醫生查詢。

參考資料: 1. Velazquez FR. et al. Protective Effects of Natural Rotavirus Infection.The Pediatric Infectious Disease journals 2009;28: S54-S56 RR2. 2. CDC. MMWR. Prevention of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Among Infants and Children. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP); Feb 2009; Vol 58:No. RR2. 3. Mitui MT. et al. Co-dominance of G1 and emerging G3 rotaviruses in Hong Kong: A three-year surveillance in three major hospitals; Journal of clinical virology;2011;50;325-333. 4. Nelson EA. et al. Estimates of Rotavirus Disease Burden in Hong Kong: Hospital-Based Surveillance. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2005; 192:S71-79. 5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Rotavirus: Symptoms; Available from here (Last accessed Jul 2019). 6. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. 1997. Oral Vaccine Protects Infants from Severe Rotavirus Diarrhea First Success in a Developing Country. ScienceDaily; Available from here (Last accessed Jul 2019). 7. Raebel MA . et al. Rotavirus Disease and Its Prevention in Infants and Children. Pharmacotherapy;1999;19(11);1279-1295. 8. Centre for Health Protection. Rotavirus Infection. Available at: here (Last accessed Jul 2019). 9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Rotavirus: Treatment. Available at: here (Last accessed Jul 2019). 10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Rotavirus: Transmission. Available at: here (Last accessed Jul 2019). 11. Mrukowicz J, Szajewska H, Vesikari T. Options for the prevention of rotavirus disease other than vaccination. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2008; 46 Suppl 2: S32-7. 12. Anderson EJ and Weber SG. Rotavirus infection in adults. Lancet Infect Dis. 2004;4:91-99. 13. World Health Organization. Weekly epidemiological record. No. 5, 2013, 88, 49-64. 14. GlaxoSmithKline. Human-derived oral rotavirus vaccine prescribing information. GDS 14. 15. World Health Organization. Annex 3 Guidelines to assure the quality, safety and effi cacy of live attenuated rotavirus vaccines (oral). WHO Technical Report Series No 941, 2007.